Drive by Daniel H. Pink

Main Points

Carrots and sticks are not the best way to motivate people. It often backfires because people will only seek the reward and not the enjoyment that comes from work. Carrot and sticks only work if routine tasks are boring. However, do not use “if then” rewards. Use “now that” (unexpected rewards that are offered only after the task is complete).

People can become intrinsically motivated. Intrinsic motivation (Type I) is like renewable energy. It's clean, performs better in the long-run, and better for one's environment. Type I depends on autonomy, mastery, and purpose.

People want autonomy over their tasks, time, techniques, and teams. They also want to get better at things. Moreover, they must have a reason to do it. Ensure goals are Type I-based.


★★★☆☆ This book is OK. There isn't a whole lot of info I would find new or exciting. It is for someone who is very entrenched in the Type X (extrinsic rewards) mindset.

Chapter 1: The Rise and Fall of Motivation 2.0

Motivation 1.0 involves surviving and reproducing. Motivation 2.0 involves extrinsic motivation.

People are not solely motivated extrinsically. People can be driven by purpose.

Chapter 2: 7 Reasons Carrot & Sticks (Often) Don't Work

Rewards turn play into work. Rewards can also lead to worse performance and accuracy. Rewards also increase risk-seeking and short-term thinking because of its anticipation.

Extrinsic rewards makes people find the quickest way to get those rewards. Over time, people can get desensitized to rewards and require more over time.

Rewards: 1. Extinguish internal motivation 2. Lower performance and creativity 3. Crowd out good behaviors and encourage bad 4. Become addictive 5. Foster short-term thinking

Chapter 2A: ... & When They Do

Rewards make routine tasks less boring and more efficient.

Extrinsic rewards should be unexpected and only offered after task is completed. This is also known as “now that” rewards.

Consider non-tangible rewards. Provide specific feedback. Praise effort and strategy, not outcomes.

Chapter 3: Type I and Type X

Type X: Extrinsically motivated Type I: Intrinsically motivated

Type I: – behaviors are made, not born – outperforms Type X in the long run – is renewable energy. Type X is non-renewable. Type X is cheap, easy, efficient, finite, and pollutes. – promotes greater physical and mental well being – depends on autonomy, mastery, and purpose – requires self direction

Chapter 4: Autonomy

People like autonomy. Especially over their tasks, time, techniques, and teams. Autonomy is more satisfying, encourages creativity, and promotes happiness.

When time input and work output are tightly linked, it encourages Type X behavior.

Chapter 5: Mastery

Motivation 2.0 encourages compliance. Motivation 3.0 encourages engagement.

Mastery is a: 1. Mindset – growth mindset –> mastery – learning, not performance goals –> mastery 2. Pain – grit (perserverance and passion for long-term goals) –> high accomplishment – can mean working even when there is no improvement 3. Asymptote – true mastery impossible, but you can get close

Chapter 5 Notes

Chapter 6: Purpose

Purpose ensure people are on track and what they're doing has an effect.

Chapter 6 Notes

Type I for Individuals

Give yourself a flow test. Set alarm to go off at random times. When it goes off, write what you're doing, how you're feeling, and if you're in flow. After, find patterns.

Think about your 1 sentence in life. What gets you up in the morning? What keeps you up at night?

Look for small improvements. Give yourself performance reviews.

Deliberate practice is all about improving performance. It requires repetition, constant, critical feedback, working on weaknesses, and preparing for mental/physical exhaustion.

Chapter 7 Notes

Type I for Organizations

“20% time.” Workers have autonomy over task, time, technique, and teams 20% of the time. They just have to produce something at the end.

Peer-to-peer “now that” rewards. If co-workers notice someone is working hard, they can reward them.

Give up control. 1. Involve people in goal-setting 2. Use noncontrolling, lighter language 3. Give 1-2 hours per week for employees to come in and talk to you

Zen of Compensation

  1. Ensure internal and external fairness
    • pay people at around market rate and similarly to each other in the organization
    • if 1 person works harder or does more, they should be paid more
  2. Pay above-average
  3. If you use performance metrics, make them wide-ranging, relevant, hard to game. Make gain for reaching metric modest.

Type I for Parents and Educators